Charles V ruled over large areas of Europe, and throughout his reign —56 was preoccupied with other concerns, notably revolts in Spain and the threat to Europe from the Ottoman Turks. The papacy underestimated the Lutheran challenge, and it was only in that the Council of Trent was summoned to respond to Protestantism and clarify Catholic teachings. Some of the princes were motivated by genuine religious fervour , but many saw the potential for enhancing their power by controlling religion in their state and, by extension, church lands and the money that flowed from them.
The Schmalkaldic League was founded in for mutual defence against Charles V. Although the League was defeated in , it remained powerful enough to force concessions from Charles in , when the Religious Peace of Augsburg of neutralised the threat of further conflict. It was to last until with the start of the Thirty Years War.
The option is divided into the following four key topics, though students need to appreciate the linkages between topics, as questions may target the content of more than one key topic.
This section provides additional guidance on the specification content. It should be remembered that the official specification is the only authoritative source of information and should always be referred to for definitive guidance. Students will be required to place documentary extracts in their historical content, but the knowledge they will need to have will be central to that specified in the topics. Although the topics are clarified separately below, students need to appreciate the linkages between them since questions, including document questions, may be set which target the content of more than one topic.
The topic addresses political and economic conditions in Germany in the early sixteenth century, and the involvement of the papacy within Germany, especially the financial demands of successive popes. Students will need to be aware of the limited powers exercised by the Emperor, and his reliance on the cooperation of the princes.
Students need to understand the different messages contained in the pamphlets and the reasons for their popularity among different groups of people. Topic 3: The development of Lutheranism, — The topic covers the change and development of Lutheran ideas over time and the establishment of a separate Lutheran Church.
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- Elizabeth Foreign Policy 1558 1603 by Susan Doran.
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Students should understand the differences between Lutheran and Catholic beliefs and religious practices which made any compromise between the two churches increasingly difficult. Students need to be aware of the central authority of the Bible in Lutheranism, and how this belief undermined the authority of the Catholic Church. Students will need to understand the importance of Philip Melanchthon in organising and promoting Lutheran beliefs. Topic 4: The spread and survival of Lutheranism, — The topic considers reasons for the spread and survival of Lutheranism in the years — Students will need to understand the various motives which led to the conversion of princes to Lutheranism, and the significance of the Schmalkaldic League in this process.
They should be aware of the reasons for the growing appeal of Lutheranism for ordinary people. Students need to be aware of the difficulties which Charles V faced in different parts of Europe, and the limits of his power to deal with Lutheranism. They will need to be aware of his ambitions in Italy which made joint action with the papacy impossible to achieve. While detailed knowledge of the events of the Schmalkaldic War is not required, students should understand its significance for the survival of Lutheranism.
The work of the Council of Trent from will not be assessed.
Elizabethan foreign policy | AGORANOS
Mapping to specification. There is overlap between this topic and the following topic from the specification: Unit 1, Option B, Topic B1: Luther, Lutheranism and the German Reformation, — Bullet point 3: Centres are likely to have covered the role played by leading princes and the formation of the princely leagues. Bullet point 4: Centres are likely to have covered the relations between the emperors, princes and papacy. Bullet point 4: Centres are likely to have covered key individuals such as Frederick the Wise and Maurice of Saxony and princely attitudes and motives.
Bullet point 4: Centres are likely to have covered the nature of Habsburg power, and relations between the emperors and princes and the difficulties faced by Charles V. Bullet point 3: Centres are likely to have covered the role of other factors in the survival and spread of Lutheranism, including the wider problems facing the papacy. Bullet point 4: Centres are likely to have covered relations between the emperors, princes and papacy. Pearson Edexcel as and a level in History Topic booklet. Download Main page last years. Accessible for students. Short descriptive analysis of poverty and responses to it.
For teachers. Detailed analysis of the role of Tudor Parliaments. Specialist essays on the late Elizabethan period covering patronage, factionalism and the court. Geza Teleki. Keith J. Keith Harry.
Elizabeth I and Foreign Policy (Lancaster Pamphlets)
Bestselling Series. Harry Potter. Popular Features. New Releases. Elizabeth I and Foreign Policy, Free delivery worldwide. Expected to be delivered to Germany by Christmas. Description At her accession in Elizabeth I inherited a troublesome legacy with a long history of wars against France and Scotland. This international situation was becoming a huge financial burden on the English crown and economy. Elizabeth I and Foreign Policy describes and assesses England's foreign policy during the second half of the sixteenth century.
It includes coverage of Elizabeth's relations with foreign powers, the effect of Reformation on foreign affairs, Elizabeth's successs as a stateswoman and the war with Spain.
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