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RGS2 expression in response to NaCl and D-glucose treatment, respectively, suggest their specific roles in regulating various salt and sugar-responsive phenotypes in B. The involvement of G-protein components in plant defence is quite established in Arabidopsis 26 , 27 , 29 , In addition, the up-regulation of the duplicated BraA.

RGS genes under SA treatments possibly suggests their coordinated involvements in defence signaling in B. Quite interestingly, both the duplicated RGS genes are highly up-regulated in response to Cu and Cd treatments, suggesting their potential roles during heavy-metal toxicity. Recently, Kunihito et al. Thus RGS-mediated G-protein signaling could represent a novel pathway for phyto-remediation of heavy-metal ions in Brassica species, although other, yet unknown, mechanism may also exist, which warrants further investigation.

Three Brassica species namely, B. YIDI , B. IC and B. Tissue types representing different developmental stages of B. At least, three independent PCR amplifications were carried out to confirm the gene sequences. Ks synonymous substitution rate and Ka non-synonymous substitution rate were calculated using the DnaSP v5 program bases on the multiple sequence alignment.

Regulators of G Protein Signaling, Part A: Volume : David Siderovski :

Nub-Wt and empty Nub-vector were used as positive and negative controls, respectively and transformation and mating were performed as described 10 , The independent sets of bait and prey plasmids were then co-transformed into yeast strain Y2HGold. The interaction strength and selectivity were determined by the ability of diploid yeast cells to grow on SD—AHLT selection medium 3—5 days post inoculation , having different concentration of 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole 3-AT. In order to maintain the purification similarities, the recombinant RGS-domain of duplicated RGS proteins were purified under denaturation condition from inclusion bodies.

Briefly, BraA. In order to study the sub-cellular localization, the full-length coding regions of BraA. Thereafter, stable Arabidopsis lines Col-0 background were generated independently expressing BraA. Hypocotyl cells of four-day old seedlings T2 generation grown under continuous dark conditions on 0. Localization of B. Thereafter, infiltration was carried out on the abaxial side of 4-weeks old N.

At least two independent lines were tested to establish the localization. Seeds of B. Sterile seeds were then transferred on 0. Seeds were germinated under controlled Brassica growth conditions for four days under light and dark.

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The untreated seedlings of each time points served as respective controls. Wettschureck, N. Mammalian G proteins and their cell type specific functions. Physiology Review 85 , — Urano, D. Heterotrimeric G protein signalling in the plant kingdom. Open Biol.

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Gilman, A. G proteins: transducers of receptor-generated signals. Offermanns, S. G-proteins as transducers in transmembrane signalling. Sprang, S. G protein mechanisms: insights from structural analysis. Siderovski, D. G protein activation without a GEF in the plant kingdom. PLoS Genetics 8 , e Bisht, N. An elaborate heterotrimeric G-protein family from soybean expands the diversity of plant G-protein networks.

New Phytol. Trusov, Y. BMC Research Note 5 , Arya, G. Evolution, expression differentiation and interaction specificity of heterotrimeric G-protein subunit gene family in the mesohexaploid Brassica rapa. Johnston, C. GTPase acceleration as the rate-limiting step in Arabidopsis G protein coupled sugar signaling.

Regulators of G Protein Signalling, Part A

USA , — Jones, J. A sweet cycle for Arabidopsis G-proteins: Recent discoveries and controversies in plant G-protein signal transduction.

Plant Signal. Chen, J. A seven transmembrane RGS protein that modulates plant cell proliferation. Science , — Willard, F.

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Purification and in vitro functional analysis of the Arabidopsis thaliana regulator of G-protein signaling Methods Enzymol. Bommert, P. Nature , — Liu, J. Heterotrimeric G proteins serve as a converging point in plant defense signaling activated by multiple receptor-like kinases. Plant Physiol. Ishida, T. EMBO Rep. Aranda-Sicilia, M. Heterotrimeric G proteins interact with defense-related receptor-like kinases in Arabidopsis.

Yu, T. PLoS Genet. Liang, X. Arabidopsis heterotrimeric G proteins regulate immunity by directly coupling to the FLS2 receptor. Elife 5 , e Ashikari, M. USA 96 , — Ueguchi-Tanaka, M. USA 97 , — Ullah, H. Plant Cell 15 , — Llorente, F. ERECTA receptor-like kinase and heterotrimeric G protein from Arabidopsis are required for resistance to the necrotrophic fungus Plectosphaerella cucumerina.

Plant J. Heterotrimeric G proteins facilitate Arabidopsis resistance to necrotrophic pathogens and are involved in jasmonate signaling. Differential roles of Arabidopsis heterotrimeric G-Protein subunits in modulating cell division in roots. Plant Phsyiol.

Regulators of G-Protein Signaling, Part A

Plant Cell 19 , — Chakravorty, D. Utsunomiya, Y. Thung, L. Delgado-Cerezo, M.

Arabidopsis heterotrimeric G-protein regulates cell wall defense and resistance to necrotrophic fungi. Mol Plant. Fujisawa, Y. Suppression of the heterotrimeric G protein causes abnormal morphology, including dwarfism, in rice. Plant morphology of heterotrimeric G protein mutants. Plant Cell Physiol. Choudhury, S. Specific subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins play important roles during nodulation in soybean.

Augustine, R. Translational genomics in Brassica crops: challenges, progress, and future prospects. Plant Biotech. Lysak, M. Ancestral chromosomal blocks are triplicated in Brassiceae species with varying chromosome number and genome size.

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  8. Mun, J. Genome-wide comparative analysis of the Brassica rapa gene space reveals genome shrinkage and differential loss of duplicated genes after whole genome triplication. Genome Biol. Wang, X.