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Start on. Show related SlideShares at end. WordPress Shortcode. Full Name Comment goes here. Are you sure you want to Yes No. Browse by Genre Available eBooks No Downloads. Views Total views. Actions Shares. Embeds 0 No embeds. No notes for slide. Vedanta philosophy sdmcnys 1. At the popular level, the revival of Hinduism took the form of various movements of intense religious devotion bhakti , for example, the Vishnu-Krishna worship of the Alvars of South India. At the scholarly level, the revival of Hinduism took the form of Vedanta: the attempt to unify and systematize the teachings of the Vedas and the spiritual practices rooted in the insights of the Vedic scriptural heritage of India.

Each school of Vedanta aimed to systematically explain the nature of ultimate reality and the goal of human life in accordance with the teachings of the Upanishads.

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All schools of Vedanta maintain that the goal of human life is to realize Brahman the ultimate reality , to be united with the transcendental ground of the universe. Schools of Vedanta differ with respect to how they conceive of Brahman, what realization of and union with Brahman involves, and how this is achieved.

What is vedantha? The Upanishads emphasize the impermanence of the empirical world, physical reality as we experience it through our senses.

Beyond Maya, there is an unchanging reality called Brahman lit. Svetasvatara Upanishad, IV. Brhadaranyaka Upanishad, IV. Kena Upanishad, I. On this view, Brahman is formless or attributeless nirguna and not a personal God. The Trimurti three forms represent Brahman manifested in the processes of creation, preservation, and dissolution and recreation of the cosmos. Katha, Isa, and Svetasvatara. Brahman as Creator? The Upanishads speak of Brahman as creator.

The Upanishads affirm eternal, cyclical processes of the origination of order, its evolution, and eventual dissolution.

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Atman is distinguished from the individual personality or ego formed through attachments to sense objects. It is unseizable, for it cannot be seized; indestructible, for it cannot be destroyed; unattached, for it does not attach itself; is unbound, does not tremble, is not injured. Atman and Brahman are identical?


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Atman and Brahman are united in some way without being entirely identical? The human perspective is characterized by ignorance avidya of the true nature of reality and the self. Human persons identify themselves with their body or with their individual states of consciousness formed through contact with and attachment to sense objects. This is the false ego or false self.

The false ego is the source of human suffering or unhappiness because the false ego is a product of attachments to what is non-enduring. The Upanishads teach that all life forms move through repeated cycles of birth, death, and rebirth, until final liberation from this cycle. The cycle of death and rebirth is called Samsara. These include transmigration of the self samsara and the desirability of being released from the cycle of rebirths; the authority of the Veda regarding the means in which this release can be achieved; the understanding that Brahman is both the material upadana and the instrumental nimitta cause of the world; and the concept of the self atman as the agent of its own actions karma and, therefore, the recipient of the fruits, or consequences, of those actions phala.

The heterodox nastika philosophies of Buddhism and Jainism , and the ideas of the other orthodox astika schools Nyaya, Vaisesika, Samkhya, Yoga, and, to some extent, the Purva-Mimamsa , are rejected by all the Vedanta schools.

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It should be noted, however, that the Indian pre-Shankara Buddhist writer Bhavya, in the Madhyamakahrdaya Karika, describes the Vedanta philosophy as " Bhedabheda. While it is not typically thought of as a purely Vedantic text, the Bhagavad Gita has played a strong role in Vedantic thought, with its representative syncretism of Samkhya , Yoga , and Upanishadic thought.

It is itself called an "upanishad" and all major Vedantic teachers such as Shankara, Ramanuja, and Madhvacharya have taken it upon themselves to compose often extensive commentaries not only on the Upanishads and Brahma Sutras , but also on the Gita. In such a manner, Vedantists have historically attested to the Gita's importance to the development of Vedantic thought and practice. It was propounded by Adi Sankara mid-eighth century , a renowned Hindu philosopher, and his ParamaGuru Gaudapada, who described Ajativada.

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As Brahman is the sole reality, it cannot be said to possess any attributes whatsoever. Ignorance of this reality is the cause of all suffering in the world, and only upon true knowledge of Brahman can liberation be attained. Liberation lies in knowing the reality of this non-difference a-dvaita, "not-two"-ness. The main difference from Advaita is that in Visishtadvaita, Brahman is asserted to have attributes, including individual conscious souls and matter.

Brahman, matter and the individual souls are distinct but mutually inseparable entities. This school propounds Bhakti, or devotion to God visualized as Vishnu , to be the path to liberation. Dvaita was propounded by Madhva It identifies God with Brahman completely, and in turn with Vishnu or his incarnation Krishna. This school also advocated Bhakti as the route to liberation.

The relationship of jiva with Brahman may be regarded as dvaita from one point of view and advaita from another. There are three categories of existence, cit , acit , and Isvara. Isvara is independent and exists by Himself, while the existence of ci and acit is dependent upon Him. At the same time, cit and acit are different from Isvara, in the sense that they have attributes guna and capacities swabhaava , which are different from those of Isvara. Difference means a kind of existence which is separate but dependent, para-tantra-satta-bhava while non-difference means the impossibility of independent existence svatantra-satta-bhava.

Shuddhadvaita propounded by Vallabha — This system also encouraged Bhakti as the only means of liberation to go to Goloka lit. According to the version of Vaishnava Theology he espoused; the glorious Krishna in His "sacchidananda" form is the Absolute Brahman. He is permanently playing out His sport leela from His seat in the goloka which is even beyond the divine Vaikuntha, the abode of Vishnu and Satya-loka, the abode of Brahma the Creator, and Kailas, the abode of Shiva.

Creation is His sport. This doctrine of inconceivable one-ness and difference states that the living soul is intrinsically linked with the Supreme Lord, and yet at the same time is not the same as God, the exact nature of this relationship being inconceivable to the human mind..

The Advaita, Vishishtadvaita and Mimamsa i.

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Sri Aurobindo — , in his The Life Divine , synthesized all the exant schools of Vedanta and gave a comprehensive resolution, integrating elements from Western metaphysics and modern science. The term "modern Vedanta" is sometimes used to describe the interpretation of Advaita Vedanta given by Swami Vivekananda — of the Ramakrishna order of monks. He emphasized that though God was the absolute reality, the relative reality of the world should not be ignored; that only when abject poverty was eliminated would people be able to turn their minds to God; and that all religions were striving in their own ways to reach the ultimate truth.